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Togolese Republic - a country in Western Africa, bordering Ghana in the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. In the south of the country owns a small part of Gulf of Guinea, which is the capital Lome.

Before the advent of Europeans in Togo, the tribes lived in a primitive society. They knew how to produce simple stone tools, objects made of clay, began to explore the processing of iron. In the XV century on the coast of present Togo were the Portuguese. The slave trade was arranged with the leaders of local tribes.

Colonial period
In 1884 the German traveler Gustav Nachtigal signed a treaty with the leader Ewe Mlapoy establishing a protectorate over the coast of Germany, the current Togo. Then Germany's influence started to spread inland. Since the end of XIX century German colonialists have implemented in Togo growing cotton, coffee, cocoa. The export of agricultural products from Togo Germans have built there 3 railways and port in Lomé.
Since the beginning of World War I in August 1914, Togo was occupied by France and Britain, the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the western part (34 km ²) became the mandated territory of Great Britain, the eastern part (57 km ²) - France.
In 1956, following a referendum among the local population, the British Trust of Togo became a part of the neighboring British colony of Gold Coast, which in March 1957, Ghana became independent. Trust the French part of Togo in 1956 received the status of autonomous republic within the French Community.

Period of Independence
Independence of Togo received April 27, 1960.
The first president of Togo, S. Olympio, was elected in April 1961. In January 1962 he was introduced one-party system. In January 1963 a military coup, during which President Olympio was assassinated.

Rebel Committee handed power to a civilian government headed by Nicholas Gryunitski (German-African mulatto). In the same year Gryunitski was elected president of Togo. It was restored a multiparty system, Gryunitski formed a government of all parties represented in the newly elected parliament.

In January 1967 there was a second military coup by the Togolese armed forces chief of staff, Lieutenant-Colonel Gnassingbe Eyadema (when he was 29 years old, 16 years, he served as a oldier in the French army, fought in Vietnam and Algeria). After the coup, Eyadema dissolved parliament, abolished the constitution, banned all political
parties, has made himself a general, appointed himself head of government.

In 1969, Eyadema, has created the country's only party - Union of the Togolese people, appointing himself its chairman, and in January 1972 arranged a referendum, which became the president of Togo. Following the death of Eyadema in February 2005, President of Togo, his son Fore Gnassingbe.

Population - 6 million (estimate July 2009).
Annual growth - 2,7%.
Life expectancy - 56 years for men, 60 years for women.
Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - 3,3% (estimate 2007).
Literacy - 75% men, 47% of women (2003 estimate).
Ethnic composition - about 45 tribes, the largest - Ewe and December,.
Religion - more than 50% profess indigenous cults, about 30% - Christians, about 20% - Muslims.